(April 30, 2015): Starting this year, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) will have three Medicare quality and safety incentive programs go into effect. As a result, more than three dozen hospitals across the U.S. will be penalized more than 3% on most of their CMS reimbursements. Medicare penalties may be a real risk for your organization.
I. Medicare Quality and Safety Incentive Programs Now in Effect:
The three Medicare quality and safety incentive programs, established under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) that will take effect this year are the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program, the Hospital Readmissions Reductions Program, and the Hospital-Acquired Condition (HAC) Reduction Program.
- Hospital Readmissions Reductions Program: Hospitals can be penalized up to 3% of revenue for excessive 30-day readmissions. This is the highest amount allowed under the ACA, and is a significant increase from the readmission penalty in 2014, which was 35%.
- VBP program: CMS will withhold 1.5% of payments for all hospitals and distribute incentive payments based on performance. This program establishes bonuses and penalties that will be based on different quality indicators.
- HAC Reduction Program: There will be a 1% penalty to any hospital that falls into the bottom 25% nationally for hospital-acquired conditions, such as urinary catheter or bloodstream infections and other issues related to patient safety.
II. Impact of Increased Medicare Penalties:
To show the effect these increased Medicare penalties will have on certain hospitals, Modern Healthcare did an analysis of CMS data and found that when the Medicare penalties associated with these three programs are combined, two hospitals in particular will have considerable Medicare payments docked over 4%. The 180-bed Palisades Medical Center in North Bergen, N.J., will face a reduction of 4.44% in reimbursements, and the 455-bed Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia will face a reduction of 4.21% reduction.
The escalating penalties are receiving a lot of criticism from advocates for teaching hospitals and critical-access hospitals, which make up the biggest number of worst-performing hospitals. According to these advocates, CMS programs need to be refined to ensure they are not creating additional hardships. Members of the American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC) say that AAMC hospitals are disproportionately affected by these penalties because by their very nature they take on more complex cases and are more likely to report bad outcomes. Therefore, their stance is that they should not be compared to and held to the same standards as hospitals with different types of patients and different types of procedures.
Modern Healthcare also found that academic medical centers were among the more heavily penalized hospitals in the nation:
The University of Colorado Hospital faces a 2.18% reduction from its Medicare reimbursements;
Peter’s University Hospital faces a 2.5% reduction from its Medicare reimbursements; and
Thomas Jefferson University Hospital faces a 3.01% reduction from its Medicare reimbursements.
Forty-two hospitals will face a combined penalty of 3% or higher on their 2015 Medicare revenue.
III. Improved Performance as a Result of New Programs
While some healthcare providers will surely struggle as a result of increased penalties, many facilities have already improved their performance from year to year and face low penalty rates. In fact, about 800 of the nation’s hospitals face either no penalties or will be earning rewards based on their performance in the value-based purchasing program.
For example, Bucks County Specialty Hospital in Pennsylvania earned the nation’s highest reward in the value-based purchasing program and will see a fiscal 2015 reimbursement boost of 2.09%. The acute-care hospital has not seen a 30-day readmission fine in the past three years, it will not face a HAC penalty in 2015, and it increased its VBP Program reward.
There has been no suggestion from CMS that new rules or exceptions will be made for critical-access or academic medical centers who are disproportionately affected by increased penalties. Penalties are expected to increase over the years, having a large combined financial impact. By 2017, the combined penalties for HAC 30-day readmissions and value-based purchasing will put as much as 5.5% of inpatient Medicare payments at risk. CMS is constantly updating penalties for providers that don’t meet their arbitrary requirements, and these penalties are getting more expensive. If you have questions about these new penalties or any other pre-existing Medicare payment penalties that you may be at risk for violating, please give us a call, toll-free, at 1-800-475-1906.
Liles Parker attorneys represent health care suppliers and providers around the country in connection with regulatory compliance reviews, Medicare audits, HIPAA Omnibus Rule risk assessments, privacy breach matters, and State Medical Board inquiries. Robert W. Liles, Esq., is a Managing Partner at Liles Parker, Attorneys & Counselors at Law. Call Robert for a free consultation at (800) 475-1906.
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid (CMS) has instituted several methods to help combat the increase in waste, fraud, and abuse in the federal and state health care programs. One of the most recent trends involves pre-payment review of claims. In this process, government contractors will review a claim for problems before the claim may be paid. Unlike the traditional postpayment review process, if a health care provider is placed under prepayment review, there is very little you can do other try to identify the nature of deficiencies noted so that remedial action can be taken. Moreover, health care providers in prepayment review face expensive complications, including possible exclusion from Federal healthcare programs, if the problems which caused them to be subject to prepayment review go uncorrected. The key is to truly understand the prepayment review process and what you can do to minimize any potential problems.
I. The Prepayment Review Process Comes to Life
In 2012, CMS introduced the Recovery Audit Prepayment Review Demonstration, which allows Recovery Auditors (RACs) to conduct prepayment reviews on certain types of claims that historically result in high rates of improper Medicare payments. The demonstration focused on eleven states: California, Florida, Illinois, Louisiana, Michigan, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas. Prepayment Claim Review Programs apply to the National Correct Coding Initiative (NCCI), Medically Unlikely Edits (MUEs), and Medical Review (MR).
NCCI Edits are performed by Medicare Audit Contractors (MACs). CMS developed the NCCI to promote national correct coding methods and to control improper coding that leads to inappropriate payment in Medicare Part B claims. NCCI edits prevent improper payments when incorrect code combinations are reported. NCCI edits are updated quarterly.
MACs also perform MUEs, which were created to reduce the paid claim error rate for Medicare claims. MUEs and NCCIs are automated prepayment edits. MACs analyze whether the procedure on the submitted claim complies with MUE policy.
MRs are performed by MACs, Zone Program Integrity Contractors (ZPICs), and Supplemental Medical Review Contractors (SMRCs). These contractors identify suspected billing problems through error rates produced by the Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT) Program, vulnerabilities identified through the Recovery Audit Program, analysis of claims data, and evaluation of other information, such as complaints. CMS, MACs, and other claim review contractors target MR activities at identified problem areas appropriate for the severity of the problem. A MAC can place a provider with identified problems submitting correct claims on prepayment review. If this happens, a percentage of the provider’s claims undergo MR before the MAC authorizes payment. Once providers re-establish the practice of billing correctly, prepayment review ends at the discretion of the contractor.
II. Prepayment Review
A Medicare contractor will place a provider on prepayment review if they suspect the provider is billing the Medicare program inappropriately. Rather than paying these providers upon the submission of claims, the contractors require the providers to submit medical records and other documentation to support the claims. The records and documentation are then manually reviewed by nurses and other licensed practitioners. The submitted claims are then either approved or denied based on the manual review. Providers generally remain on prepayment review until their average rate of claims approval reaches a sufficiently high percentage, which is usually 80%.
CMS has directed its contractors to consider excluding physicians and other providers from Medicare and Medicaid if they have been on prepayment review for extended periods of time without correcting their “inappropriate behavior.” Exclusion from participation in Federal healthcare programs typically leads to other adverse consequences, such as loss of hospital privileges and being dropped from managed care networks.
Providers must make exhaustive efforts to avoid ending up on prepayment review and potentially facing exclusion. To do so, providers need to understand what contractors have the authority to put a provider on prepayment review, and what the contractors are looking for.
III. Providers and Prepayment Review – A Real Concern
Unfortunately, even the mere allegation of fraud leads to prepayment review. This, in turn, can harm even the most innocent provider. Last year in New Mexico, fifteen behavioral health care providers were put on prepayment review based on “credible allegations of fraud.” Because their Medicaid reimbursements were suspended, the providers could not afford to pay their staff, rent, or other bills. The providers tried suing the state and sought an injunction that would restore funding. The providers argued that they had been denied due process by not being told what the precise charges were against them, and that at the end of the day those suffering the most were their patients. However, they were denied the injunction.
As a result, the fifteen providers ended up filing for bankruptcy. Because the behavioral health care providers served 87% of New Mexico’s Medicaid recipients, the state of New Mexico had to bring in providers from Arizona to service residents. This caused state infighting, as New Mexico’s Legislative Finance Committee objected to the New Mexico Human Services Department moving $10 million from its budget to pay Arizona agencies to take over New Mexico providers. The deal with the Arizona providers eventually went through, and 2 of the fifteen New Mexico providers were ordered to make repayments to Medicaid.
IV. What Can Providers Do?
Unfortunately, health care providers may not be able to ignore the fact that being placed on prepayment review has become an inevitability. So what is a practitioner to do faced with this ordeal? Well, the best way for a provider to avoid a tragic situation that befell the providers in New Mexico is to have an ironclad and effective compliance plan that is followed by all provider employees and affiliates. It is best to prepare for the worst and have solid documentation of accuracy to show auditors than to lose one’s livelihood over false allegations of fraud. Have you implemented your effective compliance plan? If not, you increase the risk that your claims may not be paid for the services you have provided. Even if you do have a compliance plan in place, the plan may no longer be up to date or may simply be ineffective. It is imperative that you take action now to reduce the risks that come along with the prepayment review process. Give us a call today and we would be more than happy to assist you with the prepayment review process as well as implementing an effective compliance plan for your organization.
Robert Liles, Esq., serves as Managing Partner at Liles Parker, Attorneys & Counselors at Law. Liles Parker attorneys represent a variety of health care providers around the country in connection with both regulatory and transactional legal projects. For a free consultation, call Robert at (800) 475-1906.
President Obama’s 2011 Funding Request Provides for Expansion of the HEAT Program to Additional Cities
(October 4, 2010): As DOJ has recently noted in its own blog, over the last Fiscal Year, DOJ (including its 94 U.S. Attorneys’ Offices), HHS’ Office of Inspector General (HHS-OIG), and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), have been extraordinarily active in jointly pursuing health care providers allegedly engaging in fraud as part of the HEAT program. As DOJ notes, the mission of the HEAT program is:
- To marshal significant resources across government to prevent waste, fraud and abuse in the Medicare and Medicaid programs and crack down on the fraud perpetrators who are abusing the system and costing us all billions of dollars.
- To reduce skyrocketing health care costs and improve quality of care by ridding the system of perpetrators who are preying on Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries.
- To highlight best practices by providers and public sector employees who are dedicated to ending waste, fraud and abuse in Medicare.
- To build upon existing partnerships that already exist between the two agencies, including our Medicare Fraud Strike Forces to reduce fraud and recover taxpayer dollars.
Together, DOJ, HHS-OIG and CMS have accomplished the following over the last Fiscal Year:
- Filed charges against more than 800 defendants.
- Obtained 583 criminal convictions.
- Opened 886 new civil health care fraud matters.
- Obtained 337 civil administrative actions against parties committing health care fraud.
Through these coordinated efforts, more than $2.5 billion was recovered. Importantly, these successes have not gone unnoticed. President Obama’s FY 2011 budget request includes an additional $60.2 million in funding for the HEAT program initiative.
Commentary: In light of the government’s continuing efforts, we strongly recommend that our clients review their current compliance efforts to ensure that they take into account any and all risk areas that have been identified or associated with their areas of practice. Providers should work to ensure that their operations and billing activitivies fully comply with applicable statutory and regulatory billing and coding requirements.
Should you have questions, please give us a call for a complimentary consultation. We can be reached at 1 (800) 475-1906.
(August 31, 2010):
I. Introduction — Regional Health Care Fraud Summits:
Last week, department heads of the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), met in Los Angeles, CA and conducted the second of a planned series of “Regional Health Care Fraud Prevention Summits.” Following-up on a similar conference held in Miami, DOJ Attorney General Eric Holder HHS Secretary Kathleen Sebelius discussed a number of ongoing concerns and remedial steps that are being taken to identify, investigate and prosecute instances of Medicare fraud. In addition to these agency heads, participants learned of current and additional planned fraud enforcement initiatives from Federal and State law enforcement officials.
II. Health Care Fraud Issues Discussed at the Summit:
As Attorney General Holder discussed, the administration’s current enforcement actions were having a significant impact on health care fraud. In fact, additional funding has been allocated to expand the HEAT program to additional cities:
“. . . Last year brought an historic step forward in this fight. In May 2009, the Departments of Justice and Health and Human Services launched the Health Care Fraud Prevention and Enforcement Action Team, or “HEAT.” Through HEAT, we’ve fostered unprecedented collaboration between our agencies and our law enforcement partners. We’ve ensured that the fight against criminal and civil health care fraud is a Cabinet-level priority. And we’ve strengthened our capacity to fight health care fraud through the enhanced use of our joint Medicare Strike Forces.”
This approach is working.
In fact, HEAT’s impact has been recognized by President Obama, whose FY2011 budget request includes an additional $60 million to expand our network of Strike Forces to additional cities. With these new resources, and our continued commitment to collaboration, I have no doubt we’ll be able to extend HEAT’s record of achievement. And this record is extraordinary.
In just the last fiscal year, we’ve won or negotiated more than $1.6 billion in judgments and settlements, returned more than $2.5 billion to the Medicare Trust Fund, opened thousands of new criminal and civil health care fraud investigations, reached an all-time high in the number of health care fraud defendants charged, and stopped numerous large-scale fraud schemes in their tracks.
We can all be encouraged, in particular, by what’s been accomplished in L.A. Criminals we’ve brought to justice here – in the last year alone – include the owners of the City of Angels Hospital, who pleaded guilty to paying illegal kickbacks to homeless shelters as part of a scheme to defraud Medicare and Medi-Cal; a physician in Torrance who defrauded insurance companies by misrepresenting cosmetic procedures as “medically necessary”; an Orange County oncologist who pleaded guilty to fraudulently billing Medicare and other health insurance companies up to $1 million for cancer medications that weren’t provided; a Santa Ana doctor who pleaded guilty to health care fraud for giving AIDS and HIV patients diluted medications; and a ring of criminals who defrauded Medi-Cal out of more than $4.5 million by using unlicensed individuals to provide in-home care to scores of disabled patients, many of them children.“ (emphasis added).
As HHS Secretary Sebelius further noted:
“In March, we gave him some help when Congress passed and the president signed the Affordable Care Act — one of the strongest health care anti-fraud bills in American history. Under the new law we’ve begun to strengthen the screenings for health care providers who want to participate in Medicaid or Medicare. And I am proud to announce that CMS is issuing a final rule strengthening enrollment standards for suppliers of durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics, and supplies (DMEPOS).
This rule and others coming soon mean that only appropriately qualified suppliers will be enrolled in the program. The days when you could just hang a shingle over a desk and start submitting claims are over. No more power-driven wheelchairs for marathon runners. Under the new law, we’re also making it easier for law enforcement officials to see health care claims data from around the country in one place, combining all Medicare-paid claims into a single, searchable database. And we’re getting smarter about analyzing those claims in real time to flag potential scams. It is what credit card companies have been doing for decades: If 10 flat screen TV’s are suddenly charged to my card in one day, they know something’s not quite right. So they put a hold on payment and call me right away.
We should be able to take the same approach when one provider submits ten times as many claims for oxygen equipment as a similar operation just down the road. It’s about spotting fraud early before it escalates and the cost grows. As we step up our efforts to stamp out fraud, we’re holding ourselves accountable. The President has made a commitment to cut improper Medicare payments in half by 2012.”
While DOJ Attorney General Holder’s and HHS Secretary Sebelius’ presentations provided an overview of law enforcement’s current and future efforts, the comments of DOJ Assistant Attorney General for the Criminal Division, Lanny A. Breuer, were especially enlightening in terms of how providers are being identified and targeted for investigation. As Mr. Breuer discussed:
“In 2007, the Criminal Division of the Justice Department refocused our approach to investigating and prosecuting health care fraud cases. Our investigative approach is now data driven: put simply, our analysts and agents review Medicare billing data from across the country; identify patterns of unusual billing conduct; and then deploy our “Strike Force” teams of investigators and prosecutors to those hotspots to investigate, make arrests, and prosecute. And as criminals become more creative and sophisticated, we intend to use our most aggressive investigative techniques to be right at their heels. Whenever possible, we actively use undercover operations, court-authorized wiretaps and room bugs, and confidential informants to stop these schemes in their tracks.” (emphasis added).
As Mr. Breuer’s comments further confirm, health care providers are being identified based on their billing patterns. Through the use of data-mining, providers who coding and billing practices identify them as “outliers,” are finding themselves subjected to administrative, civil and even criminal investigation.
As counsel for a wide variety of health care providers around the country, we are especially concerned that honest, hard-working health care providers are finding themselves and their practices / clinics under investigation merely because: (1) their productivity is higher than that of their peers, or (2) their focus is specialized and often treats a higher percentage of seriously sick patients which ultimately requires a more detailed or comprehensive examination than one might normally find. Ultimately, through our representation of health care providers who have been targeted through data-mining, we believe that it is fundamentally unfair to investigate a provider merely on the basis of statistical data which can be manipulated in a thousand different ways in order to justify going after a specific provider or a type of practice.
On the administrative side, when data-mining is used as a targeting tool, providers are being audited and pursued by ZPICs, PSCs and RACs – each of is incentivized (either because they receive a percentage of any overpayment OR they are under contract with CMS to find overpayments and wrongful billings) to find fault with the provider.
IV. Continuing Health Care Fraud Concerns:
Under the current system, providers targeted through data-mining are likely to be saddled with extrapolated damages which can easily run into the millions of dollars, regardless of the fact that a large percentage of these providers are eventually exonerated (either fully or partially) when the case is heard by an Administrative Law Judge.
Health care providers subjected to an administrative audit (by a ZPIC, PSC or RAC), civil investigation (such as a review by the DOJ for possible False Claims Act liability), or criminal investigation (by DOJ or a State Medicaid Fraud Control Unit) should immediately contact your counsel. Extreme care should be taken when making statements to Federal or State investigators. Should the provider make a statement that is false or misleading, such comments could be used as the basis for bringing a separate cause of action. Your legal counsel may choose to handle all contacts with the government.
Robert W. Liles serves as Managing Partner at Liles Parker. Should you need assistance in connection with Medicare matters and cases. Should you have questions regarding these issues, give us a call for a free consultation. Call us at: 1 (800) 475-1906.
(July 12, 2010): A ZPIC’s use of extrapolation can be a surefire way of destroying a provider’s practice. We’ve known it for years and yet the government’s passion for statistical sampling only seems to be growing. This makes it essential for providers to involve experienced counsel as soon as possible after the audit has been conducted.
“Extrapolation” is the process of using statistical sampling in a review to calculate and project (extrapolate) alleged overpayments made in connection with Medicare claims. Basically, ZPICs seek out errors in an alleged “statistically relevant sample” of the provider’s Medicare claims and then calculate and apply the “error rate” to the entire universe of claims covering a given period of time. This long-standing practice allows ZPICs to grossly inflate the monetary demands on their audit targets while avoiding actually reviewing each of the Medicare claims in the universe for which they are seeking recoupment or offset.
The practice dates back twenty years to a decision by the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) to authorize the use of statistical sampling in lieu of engaging in onerous claim-by-claim reviews. In Chaves County Home Health Services v. Sullivan, 931 F.2d 914 (D.C. Cir. 1991), the district court upheld extrapolation as being within the Secretary’s discretion.
In 2003, after years of protest, physicians groups and others succeeded in convincing Congress to place some limitations on the use of extrapolation. Under Section 935 of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA), before an auditor can employ extrapolation, there must be either a determination of a sustained or high level of payment error, or documentation that educational intervention has failed to correct the payment error. While this opens the door to challenging an extrapolation, we also work with a statistical expert to identify other errors made by the ZPIC when conducting an extrapolation.
Over the years, Liles Parker has worked with a number of the best statisticians in the country, challenging the extrapolation and having it invalidated at either the Qualified Independent Contractor (QIC) level or at hearing before an Administrative Law Judge (ALJ). If your practice or clinic is audited by a ZPIC, we strongly recommend that you engage experienced legal counsel to represent your interests during this complex process. The legal arguments utilized are driven by the facts in each case. As a result, you should retain counsel with extensive real-world knowledge of how to best challenge the use of statistical sampling by ZPICs and PSCs.
Should you have any questions regarding these issues, don’t hesitate to contact us. For a complementary consultation, you may call Robert W. Liles or one of our other attorneys at 1 (800) 475-1906.